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Detailed clay-mineral studies have been and are being made of the particular bentonites needed for each of these uses. Occasionally, however, natural materials are called shale with little regard to composition. The structural relations of the layer silicates and of the pyroxenes are such that projections onto the respective ortho- hexagonal axes are approximate equivalents.The result of this work has vastly aided drilling-mud practice and the refining operation. DEHYDRATION, REHYDRATION, AND CHANGES TAKING PLACE ON HEATING . Identification of high temperature phases Allophane 211 Kaolinite 212 Dehydration and phase changes on heating. Thus, thinly layered rocks composed essentially of quartz and/or carbonate with little clay-mineral component have been called shale. In the imperfectly developed diffraction diagrams of the fired montmorillonites, the lines which appear are only those which relate to the pseudohexagonal nature. SHROCK, Consulting Editor CLAY MINERALOGY Mc Graw-Hill Series in the Geological Sciences ROBERT R. More recently a very great interest in clay mineralogy has developed in Great Britain. 94 Glaesser, R., On the Mechanism of Formation of Montmorillonite-Acetone Com- plexes, Compt. The later phases developed at higher temperatures are dependent primarily on bulk composition, and here "inheritance" is of little importance.SHROCK, Consulting Editor DE SITTER Structural Geology EWING, JARDETZKY, AND PRESS Elastic Waves in Layered Media GRIM Clay Mineralogy HEINRICH Microscopic Petrography SHROCK AND TWENHOFEL Principles of Invertebrate Paleontology CLAY MINERALOGY RALPH E. Mac Ewan 100 of the Rothampsted Agricultural Experi- ment Station has studied in detail the reaction of the clay minerals and organic compounds. Thus in the case of the develop- ment of mullite or cordierite, the controlling factor is probably the amount of magnesium present.Researches into the structure and properties of kaolinite have permitted improvements in the clays produced for the paper trade; these have resulted in improvements of such paper properties as acceptance to ink, rate of drying, etc. Rehydration Vermiculite 231 Dehydration and phase changes on heating. Argillite is a fine-grained argillaceous material that is massive and some- what indurated and hard. They conclude that the transition from the old to the new phase requires no chaotic disintegration followed by the 70 Thilo, E., and G. They conclude further that the development of mullite from pyrophyllite, which is probably similar to its development from montmorillonite, is carried forward to a considerable extent along the same lines as the development of the f orsterite.Construction engineers are frequently faced with the problem of build- ing a structure through a clay material, as in the case of a tunnel, on clay material, as in the foundation of a building, or with a clay material, as in the subgrade of a highway or an earth-filled dam. It differs from shale in being massive rather than laminated and from clay by being harder^ The term soil is likely to have a considerably different meaning when used by a geologist, by an agronomist, and by a civil engineer. Rogge, Chemische Untersuchungen von Silikaten, VICI, Ber. Steger 71 has investigated the expansion-contraction of montmoril- lonite.A detailed discussion of the refractoriness of clays, which is influenced by other factors than the clay- mineral composition, is not, however, included. As a particle-size term, the clay fraction is that size fraction composed of the smallest particles. Wilm, Kristallstruktur und Quellung von Mont- mori Uonit, Z. They 84 also determined the clay-mineral compostion of many types of soil. H., Relation between the Crystal Structure of Minerals and Their Base-Exchange Capacity, Trans. The cryptocrystalline quartz produced on firing many montmoril- lonites at about 1000C exhibits many vagaries with respect to its apparent relation to high-low inversion.The clay minerals are the major factor controlling the larger rock properties of clay materials, such as plasticity, strength, sensitivity, etc. The maximum size of particles in the clay size grade is defined differently in different disciplines. In 1927, Orcel 85 in Paris first applied the differential thermal procedure in its modern form to the study of clay minerals, and its general use today is due in no small part to Orcel's efforts. Synthesized quartz, when observed by Bradley and Grim at room temperature, was found in some cases as the a, in others as the ft modification, and in one case apparently intermediate.
Such discussion is necessary as a background for the consideration of the clay minerals themselves. Solubility of clay minerals in alkalies Infrared Spectra of the Clay Minerals 303 General statement. Syntheses from mixtures of oxides and hydroxides at ordinary temperatures and pressures. A separation at 2 microns is frequently about the optimum size for the best split of the clay-mineral and nonclay-mineral components of natural materials. W., et al., Die Sedimente des aquatorialen atlantischen Ozeans, Deutsche atiantische Bxped. The original concept of the layer silicates was drawn from observations of the dimensional compatibility of brucite and the cristobalite-tridymite type of tetrahedral layer.
GRIM Research Professor of Geology University of Illinois New York Toronto London Mc GRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publishers. He has presented the analyses of many soil mate- rials 101 and has contributed to X-ray techniques 102 and the structure of 91 Mering, J., Reactions des montmorillonit, Bull. The spinel-forming specimens all develop more or less cristobalite around 1000 or 1100C without going through the quartz intermediate stage.
1953 CLAY MINERALOGY Copyright, 1953, by the Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Library of Congress Catalog Card Nwriber: 52-13807 IV THE MAPLE PRESS COMPANY, YORK, PA. No separate features appear in the differential thermal curves to indicate any energy effect associated with the growth of the cristobalite.
Because of the scantiness of available data, the general conclusions resulting from such analyses must be considered as tentative and preliminary. In general the term clay implies a natural, earthy, fine-grained material which develops plasticity when mixed with a limited amount of water. Mehmel, Ueber den optischen und rdntgenographischen Nachweis von Kaolinit, Halloysit, und Montmorillonit, Z. 78 Mehmel, M., Ueber die Struktur von Halloysit und Metahalloysit, Z. Concepts of the Composition of Clay Materials 23 clearly the two forms of halloysite and to show their relations to each other. The spinel tends to disappear at temperatures above about 1200C in all samples studied except the nontronite sample.
Future researches may show that some major revisions are necessary. OEIGIN AND OCCUEBBNCB OF THE CLAY MINERALS (CONT.) 348 Recent Sediments 348 Marine environment. By plasticity is meant the property of the moistened material to be deformed under the application of pressure, with the deformed shape being retained when the deforming pressure is removed. Maegdefrau, Ueber die Natur des Tonanteils in Kohstoffen der deutschen Zementindustrie, Zement, 24, 625-632 (1935). They also showed that the indices of refraction of some of the clay minerals may vary with the nature of the index liquid used to measure them. Bradley and Grim 67 have considered the structural changes involved in the development of high-temperature phases when montmorillonites are heated, and the following statements are also from their work.