Relative dating for geological purposes
He then calculates that this would increase the total animal mass by 2-3% and decides that this amount is small enough that he can ignore it completely. It is important to take the size of animals into account when considering how much space they would occupy because the greatest number of species occurs in the smallest animals. Vermicomposting could reduce the rate of waste accumulation, but it requires maintenance of its own. The biology of spiders, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York. The following objections are covered in more detail by Brown. Walt Brown's model proposes that the Flood waters came from a layer of water about ten miles underground, which was released by a catastrophic rupture of the earth's crust, shot above the atmosphere, and fell as rain. Kent Hovind proposed that the Flood water came from a comet which broke up and fell on the earth. [Johnsen et al, 1992,; Alley et al, 1993] A worldwide flood would be expected to leave a layer of sediments, noticeable changes in salinity and oxygen isotope ratios, fractures from buoyancy and thermal stresses, a hiatus in trapped air bubbles, and probably other evidence. Why did the Flood not leave traces on the sea floors? [Twenhofel, 1961] In a year of the Flood, they could have settled about half a meter. Such layers are sometimes meters in width, interbedded with sediments containing marine fossils. However, even Jewish sources admit that this contradicts the unambiguous word of the Bible. 187] The number and size of clean birds is small enough to disregard entirely, but the Bible at one point (Gen. Woodmorappe performed such an analysis and came to the conclusion that the animals would take up 47% of the ark. How did such a small crew dispose of so much waste? The animals aboard the ark would have been in very poor shape unless they got regular exercise. Again, this has the problem of the heat from the gravitational potential energy. A year long flood should be recognizable in sea bottom cores by (1) an uncharacteristic amount of terrestrial detritus, (2) different grain size distributions in the sediment, (3) a shift in oxygen isotope ratios (rain has a different isotopic composition from seawater), (4) a massive extinction, and (n) other characters. Why is there no evidence of a flood in tree ring dating? This apparently occurs when a body of salt water has its fresh-water intake cut off, and then evaporates.
Most extinctions are caused by destroying the organisms' preferred environments. Getting all the animals aboard the Ark presents logistical problems which, while not impossible, are highly impractical. Since there were likely more animals to load, the time pressures would have been even worse. However, on the ark "kind" must have meant something closer to species for three reasons: What kinds were aboard the ark? One example, the Joggins section along the Bay of Fundy, shows a continuous section 2750 meters thick (along a 48-km sea cliff) with multiple in-place forests, some separated by hundreds of feet of strata, some even showing evidence of forest fires. For other examples, see Dawson, 1868; Cristie & Mc Millan, 1991; Gastaldo, 1990; Yuretich, 1994.] Creationists point to logs sinking in a lake below Mt. Helens as an example of how a flood can deposit vertical trunks, but deposition by flood fails to explain the roots, the soil, the layering, and other features found in such places. If the geologic record was deposited in a year, then the events it records must also have occurred within a year. Organisms have preferred environments outside of which they are at a deadly disadvantage. If only 15764 animals were aboard the Ark (see section 3), one animal must have been loaded every 38 seconds, without letup. The sediments are so fine that each layer would have required over a month to settle. Stratigraphic sections showing a dozen or more mature forests layered atop each other--all with upright trunks, in-place roots, and well-developed soil--appear in many locations. They can't survive there, at least not for long without special care. The Green River formation in Wyoming contains 20,000,000 annual layers, or varves, identical to those being laid down today in certain lakes. Therefore all extinct land animals had representatives aboard the ark. Other animals are strict carnivores, and some of those specialize on certain kinds of foods, such as small mammals, insects, fish, or aquatic invertebrates. Many snakes, for example, will eat only live foods (or at least warm and moving). Most spiders locate their prey by the vibrations it produces. As shown in section 5, all the mechanisms proposed for causing the Flood already provide more than enough energy to vaporize it as well. It is also worth pointing out that the number of extinct species is undoubtedly greater than the number of known extinct species. How did Noah determine and provide for all those special diets? [Foelix, 1996] Most herbivorous insects require fresh food. Food spoilage is a major concern on long voyages; it was especially thus before the inventions of canning and refrigeration. These additional factors only make the heat problem worse. Much limestone is made of the skeletons of zillions of microscopic sea animals. Were all those animals alive when the Flood started?