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Au(I), referred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with soft ligands such as thioethers, thiolates, and tertiary phosphines. A good example is Au(CN), which is the soluble form of gold encountered in mining.
The binary gold halides, such as Au Cl, form zigzag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au. but gold(III) sulfide can be made by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute solution of gold(III) chloride or chlorauric acid. It does not react with hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, sulfuric, or nitric acid.
Gold's high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use).
Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, and tooth restoration.
Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine.
As of 2016, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes per year.
Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium (gold tellurides).
Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion.
Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent.
Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is The production of gold from a more common element, such as lead, has long been a subject of human inquiry, and the ancient and medieval discipline of alchemy often focused on it; however, the transmutation of the chemical elements did not become possible until the understanding of nuclear physics in the 20th century.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction.
A relatively rare element, gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history.